New report examines Ann Arbor deer population, control efforts, MLive, March 13, 2107A total of 315 deer were detected in Ann Arbor during a population count conducted in early February. That’s more than 50 percent higher than the number of deer spotted during the last count a year earlier. “This does not necessarily reflect a 50% increase in deer abundance, but an increase in detection using adjusted methods.
“White Buffalo’s report indicates the city can assume a rough cost of about $450 per deer culled and $1,200 per deer sterilized.
Beyond Lyme: New Tick-Borne Diseases On The Rise In U.S., NPR, March 11, 2017In the Midwest, you can find Heartland virus, a new Lyme-like disease and Bourbon virus — which is thought to be spread by ticks but hasn’t been proven yet. In the South, there’s Southern tick-associated rash illness. Out west, there’s a new type of spotted fever. And across a big swath of the country, there’s a disease called ehrlichiosis.
Tick-borne Lyme disease exploding into Michigan; human cases up 5-fold, The Free Press, Feb 23, 2017The Lyme disease spike in Michigan correlates with the spread of blacklegged ticks here. In 1998, the ticks were established in only five counties — Berrien County in the southwestern-most Lower Peninsula, and four counties in the Upper Peninsula — and reported in 22 other counties. By 2016, however, the ticks were established in almost five times as many counties — established in 24 Michigan counties and reported in 18 others. The ticks have overtaken the entirety of the Lake Michigan shoreline in the Lower Peninsula, from Charlevoix to St. Joseph. But tick populations are not staying confined to coastal counties, becoming established increasingly to the east in the southern part of the state.
[Saline resident, who had not traveled outside the county,] Feldkamp said she never got her primary care doctor, neurologist, or oncologist to take Lyme disease seriously. “And once I started being vocal about it on Facebook, I started hearing from all these other people suffering from Lyme disease who’ve had a similar experience with their doctors,” she said.
State, hunters stepping up efforts to control Michigan’s “resilient” coyote population, Michigan Radio, Feb 23, 2017“Our natural resource commission had been hearing a lot of complaints and concerns from a variety of different stakeholders,” Bump said. “So it went from people in the Upper Peninsula that were concerned about lower deer numbers to suburban and urban folks in southern Michigan that were starting to see more coyotes in their neighborhoods and had concerns that way.”
Deer overpopulation troubles municipalities / Efforts to restrict symbol of tourism prove difficult, The Japan News, Feb 22, 2017 Municipalities that have been protecting deer populations as a tourism resource or natural asset are now increasingly struggling with how to manage overpopulation of the animals. The deer population in Nara Park in the city of Nara has increased to 1,200 from about 500 in 1957, when they were designated as a national natural asset.
Since the population surge, damage to local crops caused by deer feeding has escalated. At the UNESCO World Heritage site Kasugayama Primeval Forest, located near Nara Park, deer eat the buds of young trees, preventing their growth into adult trees.To address the situation, the Nara prefectural government decided to divide the city into four areas and create an area where deer hunting will be allowed from April.
“You have to protect yourself, your family, and native ecosystems from the most dangerous and destructive wild animal in North America, an animal responsible for maiming and killing hundreds of humans each year, an animal that wipes out whole forests along with most of their fauna.
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Monitoring Deer Impacts on Natural Vegetation in Ann Arbor:
A Pilot Study of Red Oak Seedlings as Experimental Indicators of Deer Browse Intensity
Across 10 city parks
November 2015 – October 2016
Jacqueline Courteau, Ph.D.
Consulting Biologist/Ecologist, NatureWrite LLC
October 17, 2016
This pilot experimental study, in which red oak seedlings were planted and monitored in 10 city parks (and in a separate study at the Arboretum), found that deer are browsing 20–90% of tree seedlings, a level that exceeds the 15% recommended in existing scientific literature as allowing for sustainable tree regeneration (Blossey 2014). Overall, deer alone were responsible for 76% of the browse-damaged seedlings, with an additional 11% browsed by both deer and small mammals.
A total of 9% of seedlings were browsed by small mammals only; including seedlings also browsed by deer, 20% of seedlings showed evidence ofsmall mammal browse.
Dr. Anthony J. DeNicola
President, White Buffalo Inc.
Oct 24, 2016
Deer biology, the impact of too many deer, and deer management options are the topics topics of this February 2017 report. Links to data collected by the City of Ann Arbor and research from major institutions and scientists provide documentation.
Ann Arbor has too many deer as shown by 1) scientific studies of our natural areas, 2) a city survey of citizen experiences, 3) the increase in the number of deer-vehicle collisions, 4) the observations of a professional deer biologist and 5) annual aerial surveys. These metrics and the report from the deer management contractor will be used to inform future decisions about the deer management program.
The City began a 4-year deer management program in 2016 with a cull of 63 deer using professional sharpshooters. In 2017, the city added a second method– the surgical sterilization of 54 does in two neighborhood areas — in addition to the culling of 96 deer in natural areas in the city.
The Ann Arbor deer management program is based on science. Here’s a summary of deer biology, the impact of too many deer, and deer management options.
- Deer populations grow rapidly.
- Deer evolved as a prey species, so they reproduce rapidly. Deer populations double every 2 years. In year 1, a doe bears one fawn. In years 2-15, she has two or three fawns each year. In a U of M study in Washtenaw County, 4 does and 2 bucks increased to 222 deer in 7 years.
- In Ann Arbor, there are no natural predators (hunters, wolves, cougars, bears); only cars limit the population growth.
- Rapid population growth means that delays in response increase the problem and increase the cost to resolve it.
- Removing deer from healthy populations like Ann Arbor’s does not increase reproductive rates.
- Deer are “the” major herbivore of forest ecosystems.
- Deer are browsers; they eat leaves, buds, and green stems as high as they can reach (unlike cows and other grazers that eat grass). They prefer native plants and many garden plants. Deer eat 5-10 pounds of greens daily.
- At high population density, they have disproportionately large impacts on biodiversity and forest dynamics.
- Deer can prevent forest regeneration (stopping the next generation of trees and shrubs), endanger native plants, and facilitate the establishment of invasive species.
- Their impact cascades through the food web, impacting small mammals, birds, reptiles, insects, and amphibians, as well as stream quality.
- In Ann Arbor, two studies have shown significant deer damage to 10 city parks, the U of M Arboretum. Due to the damage to U of M property,t U of M has joined the City’s effort.
- Deer thrive in suburban landscapes like Ann Arbor’s because of the ideal habitat with ample food and no hunting or wild predators.
- Deer flourish on edges since edges provide more food than fields or mature woods. Ann Arbor’s yards create much more edge habitat than naturally occurs, helping to provide the 5-10 pounds of food that a deer eats daily.
- In Ann Arbor, aerial surveys show that deer density varies across the city, with most in wards 1 and 2. Deer are present and increasing in all wards.
- Deer social groups affect deer impact and management methods.
- Females live in social groups and stay and raise offspring in a natal home range learned from their mother. Suburban female deer have home ranges less than 1/2 mile squared, about 100-200 acres.
- Deer have no way to know whether another area is available and have no urge to leave – they are faithful to their natal home range. Removing deer in one area does not cause other deer to move in; they do not “act as gas molecules,” spreading to fill empty space.
- Deer-vehicle collisions (DVC’s)
- Collisions increase as the number of deer increase.
- Collisions decrease when deer are removed.
- DVC’s are an indicator of the deer population.
- In Ann Arbor, from 2004-2015, DVC’s nearly tripled from 31 to 90, while all crashes went up only 6%.
- Lyme disease
- Deer are hosts for blacklegged ticks. These ticks can carry Lyme and other diseases that can cause severe headaches, arthritis, heart palpitations, inflammation of the brain, memory loss, and more. Lyme diseases is very difficult to diagnose and treat.
- Recent work on the role of deer in Lyme disease shows a correlation between deer densities, the abundance of blacklegged ticks that carry the disease, and cases of Lyme disease. Once established, Lyme disease can only be reduced if deer densities are brought very low.
- Lyme is not yet endemic in Ann Arbor, but there are cases in Washtenaw County.
- Options for dealing with over-abundant deer
- Scientists have studied deer management extensively and concluded that, in areas where sharpshooting is legal and safe, culling is the most effective and cost-efficient method.
- Where there are access issues, scientists recommend surgical sterilization of does. Other contraceptives have problems with effectiveness, require multiple applications, and negatively affect buck behavior. All non-lethal methods of population control take time to be effective – the population is not reduced immediately.
- Methods that don’t control deer populations do not have long-lasting effects. Deer quickly become accustomed to smells, noise, water, and other deterrents. Fences must be at least 8 feet high to be effective and only shift the deer to other areas. “Deer-resistant” plants aren’t resistant when deer are hungry enough.
- Moving deer is not legal because of high mortality and danger of spreading disease.
SOURCES FOR MORE INFORMATION
- The City’s deer management website, which includes, along with other information:
- Information about the 2016 and 2017 deer management programs, including the City Council resolutions, the lethal and sterilization programs, and measures of success.
- Summaries of meetings between City staff and citizen groups.
- Documents relating to the deer management contractor, the permit application, and response from the MDNR.
- Washtenaw Citizens for Ecological Balance (WC4EB) educational website:
- Information on deer biology, overabundance, and management, especially in urban areas.
- Links to scientific reports, news, magazine articles, interviews, and more, along with a link to sign up for updates.
- “An Integrated Approach for Managing White-Tailed Deer in Suburban Environments: the Cornell University Study” by Jason R. Boulanger, et. al. , 2014.
- “Help for Communities Grappling with Abundant Deer Populations” from Cornell University.
Prepared by Washtenaw Citizens for Ecological Balance, February 2017