One of the major threats to the continued existence of the mature forest at Reinstein Woods is the large deer population. The town of Cheektowaga has begun a town-wide bait and shoot program to reduce the size of the population. The program is expected to take several years to achieve a significant reduction in the size of the population. Therefore, DEC plans to go ahead with establishing deer exclosures in strategic locations to encourage regeneration of desirable tree species in the forest… Two deer exclosures within the Woods give visible evidence that the deer population is impacting the forest within the Woods.
Relative deer density and sustainability: a conceptual framework for integrating deer management with ecosystem management
Wildlife Society Bulletin, 1997
This framework replaces the variety of old carrying capacity concepts: sustained yield of maximum numbers of deer for harvest and sustained yield of timber. All of these can be expressed in the common currency of RDD, which would help clarify apparent differences when data are collected on landscapes with differing carrying capacities.
Height of White-Flowered Trillium (Trillium Grandiflorum) as an Index of Deer Browsing Intensity
Roger C. Anderson
Feb 1, 1994
Trillium stem height was positively correlated with reproductive output by perennial herbaceous plants and negatively correlated with the percent of the herbaceous understory that is browsed. This indicates change in stem height is as indication of the general status of the herbaceous flora as influenced by deer browsing. Based on deer population densities associated with study sites supporting Trillium populations with stable stem heights and flowering plants, maintenance of deer densities of 4—6 individuals/km2 is recommended for deciduous forests in northeastern Illinois.
Impacts of White-tailed Deer On Endangered and Threatened Vascular Plants
Natural Areas Journal, 1992.
To assess the impact of white-tailed deer on flora, a review of pertinent literature and a telephone survey of professional botanists, endangered species scientists, natural area managers, and US National Park Service resource managers was undertaken. Ninety-eight species of threatened or endangered plants were reported disturbed by deer. Monocots and dicots comprised 39.8% and 56.1%, respectively, of the species disturbed. Of the disturbed species, 38.7% belonged to families Liliaceae and Orchidaceae.
The terrestrial vegetation and flora of North and South Manitou Islands, Sleeping Bear Dunes National Lakeshore
University of Michigan, 1983
The vegetation and flora of North and South Manitou Islands in northern Lake Michigan were surveyed during the summer of 1982 and the spring of 1983, the first comprehensive study of both islands. The vegetation associations were mapped and described, and a catalogue of 490 vascular plant species was compiled. A noticeable difference in forest structure and floristic composition between the islands was observed, largely due to an introduced deer herd on North Manitou. Twenty permanent plots were established on the islands to observe any future changes at selected sites. The island distributions of eight native species listed as threatened or of special concern by the State of Michigan were mapped and fragile habitats were identified.