Beyond Lyme: New Tick-Borne Diseases On The Rise In U.S., NPR, March 11, 2017In the Midwest, you can find Heartland virus, a new Lyme-like disease and Bourbon virus — which is thought to be spread by ticks but hasn’t been proven yet. In the South, there’s Southern tick-associated rash illness. Out west, there’s a new type of spotted fever. And across a big swath of the country, there’s a disease called ehrlichiosis.
Tick-borne Lyme disease exploding into Michigan; human cases up 5-fold, The Free Press, Feb 23, 2017The Lyme disease spike in Michigan correlates with the spread of blacklegged ticks here. In 1998, the ticks were established in only five counties — Berrien County in the southwestern-most Lower Peninsula, and four counties in the Upper Peninsula — and reported in 22 other counties. By 2016, however, the ticks were established in almost five times as many counties — established in 24 Michigan counties and reported in 18 others. The ticks have overtaken the entirety of the Lake Michigan shoreline in the Lower Peninsula, from Charlevoix to St. Joseph. But tick populations are not staying confined to coastal counties, becoming established increasingly to the east in the southern part of the state.
[Saline resident, who had not traveled outside the county,] Feldkamp said she never got her primary care doctor, neurologist, or oncologist to take Lyme disease seriously. “And once I started being vocal about it on Facebook, I started hearing from all these other people suffering from Lyme disease who’ve had a similar experience with their doctors,” she said.
Deer biology, the impact of too many deer, and deer management options are the topics topics of this February 2017 report. Links to data collected by the City of Ann Arbor and research from major institutions and scientists provide documentation.
Ann Arbor has too many deer as shown by 1) scientific studies of our natural areas, 2) a city survey of citizen experiences, 3) the increase in the number of deer-vehicle collisions, 4) the observations of a professional deer biologist and 5) annual aerial surveys. These metrics and the report from the deer management contractor will be used to inform future decisions about the deer management program.
The City began a 4-year deer management program in 2016 with a cull of 63 deer using professional sharpshooters. In 2017, the city added a second method– the surgical sterilization of 54 does in two neighborhood areas — in addition to the culling of 96 deer in natural areas in the city.
The Ann Arbor deer management program is based on science. Here’s a summary of deer biology, the impact of too many deer, and deer management options.
- Deer populations grow rapidly.
- Deer evolved as a prey species, so they reproduce rapidly. Deer populations double every 2 years. In year 1, a doe bears one fawn. In years 2-15, she has two or three fawns each year. In a U of M study in Washtenaw County, 4 does and 2 bucks increased to 222 deer in 7 years.
- In Ann Arbor, there are no natural predators (hunters, wolves, cougars, bears); only cars limit the population growth.
- Rapid population growth means that delays in response increase the problem and increase the cost to resolve it.
- Removing deer from healthy populations like Ann Arbor’s does not increase reproductive rates.
- Deer are “the” major herbivore of forest ecosystems.
- Deer are browsers; they eat leaves, buds, and green stems as high as they can reach (unlike cows and other grazers that eat grass). They prefer native plants and many garden plants. Deer eat 5-10 pounds of greens daily.
- At high population density, they have disproportionately large impacts on biodiversity and forest dynamics.
- Deer can prevent forest regeneration (stopping the next generation of trees and shrubs), endanger native plants, and facilitate the establishment of invasive species.
- Their impact cascades through the food web, impacting small mammals, birds, reptiles, insects, and amphibians, as well as stream quality.
- In Ann Arbor, two studies have shown significant deer damage to 10 city parks, the U of M Arboretum. Due to the damage to U of M property,t U of M has joined the City’s effort.
- Deer thrive in suburban landscapes like Ann Arbor’s because of the ideal habitat with ample food and no hunting or wild predators.
- Deer flourish on edges since edges provide more food than fields or mature woods. Ann Arbor’s yards create much more edge habitat than naturally occurs, helping to provide the 5-10 pounds of food that a deer eats daily.
- In Ann Arbor, aerial surveys show that deer density varies across the city, with most in wards 1 and 2. Deer are present and increasing in all wards.
- Deer social groups affect deer impact and management methods.
- Females live in social groups and stay and raise offspring in a natal home range learned from their mother. Suburban female deer have home ranges less than 1/2 mile squared, about 100-200 acres.
- Deer have no way to know whether another area is available and have no urge to leave – they are faithful to their natal home range. Removing deer in one area does not cause other deer to move in; they do not “act as gas molecules,” spreading to fill empty space.
- Deer-vehicle collisions (DVC’s)
- Collisions increase as the number of deer increase.
- Collisions decrease when deer are removed.
- DVC’s are an indicator of the deer population.
- In Ann Arbor, from 2004-2015, DVC’s nearly tripled from 31 to 90, while all crashes went up only 6%.
- Lyme disease
- Deer are hosts for blacklegged ticks. These ticks can carry Lyme and other diseases that can cause severe headaches, arthritis, heart palpitations, inflammation of the brain, memory loss, and more. Lyme diseases is very difficult to diagnose and treat.
- Recent work on the role of deer in Lyme disease shows a correlation between deer densities, the abundance of blacklegged ticks that carry the disease, and cases of Lyme disease. Once established, Lyme disease can only be reduced if deer densities are brought very low.
- Lyme is not yet endemic in Ann Arbor, but there are cases in Washtenaw County.
- Options for dealing with over-abundant deer
- Scientists have studied deer management extensively and concluded that, in areas where sharpshooting is legal and safe, culling is the most effective and cost-efficient method.
- Where there are access issues, scientists recommend surgical sterilization of does. Other contraceptives have problems with effectiveness, require multiple applications, and negatively affect buck behavior. All non-lethal methods of population control take time to be effective – the population is not reduced immediately.
- Methods that don’t control deer populations do not have long-lasting effects. Deer quickly become accustomed to smells, noise, water, and other deterrents. Fences must be at least 8 feet high to be effective and only shift the deer to other areas. “Deer-resistant” plants aren’t resistant when deer are hungry enough.
- Moving deer is not legal because of high mortality and danger of spreading disease.
SOURCES FOR MORE INFORMATION
- The City’s deer management website, which includes, along with other information:
- Information about the 2016 and 2017 deer management programs, including the City Council resolutions, the lethal and sterilization programs, and measures of success.
- Summaries of meetings between City staff and citizen groups.
- Documents relating to the deer management contractor, the permit application, and response from the MDNR.
- Washtenaw Citizens for Ecological Balance (WC4EB) educational website:
- Information on deer biology, overabundance, and management, especially in urban areas.
- Links to scientific reports, news, magazine articles, interviews, and more, along with a link to sign up for updates.
- “An Integrated Approach for Managing White-Tailed Deer in Suburban Environments: the Cornell University Study” by Jason R. Boulanger, et. al. , 2014.
- “Help for Communities Grappling with Abundant Deer Populations” from Cornell University.
Prepared by Washtenaw Citizens for Ecological Balance, February 2017
The Relationship Between Deer Density, Tick Abundance, and Human Cases of Lyme Disease in a Residential Community
Journal of Medical Entomology, July, 2014
Howard J. Kilpatrick, Andrew M. Labonte, and Kirby C. Stafford, III
White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus Zimmerman), serve as the primary host for the adult blacklegged tick (Ixodes scapularis Say), the vector for Lyme disease, human babesiosis, and human granulocytic anaplasmosis. Our objective was to evaluate the degree of association between deer density, tick abundance, and human cases of Lyme disease in one Connecticut community over a 13-yr period. We surveyed 90–98% of all permanent residents in the community six times from 1995 to 2008 to document resident’s exposure to tick-related disease and frequency and abundance of deer observations. After hunts were initiated, number and frequency of deer observations in the community were greatly reduced as were resident-reported cases of Lyme disease. Number of resident-reported cases of Lyme disease per 100 households was strongly correlated to deer density in the community. Reducing deer density to 5.1 deer per square kilometer resulted in a 76% reduction in tick abundance, 70% reduction in the entomological risk index, and 80% reduction in resident-reported cases of Lyme disease in the community from before to after a hunt was initiated.
Lyme Disease in Washtenaw: Frequently Asked Questions
There were 13 confirmed cases in Washtenaw residents in 2013.
Deer Damage After Foliage Falls
Fairfield County, 2010
Dr. Georgina Scholl, Vice Chairman of the Alliance, stated “Residents have forgotten that it is not normal to look through the forest and see the rise and fall of our topography hundreds of feet out. The shrubs and saplings that once comprised the leafy understory used to block your view. Today, such lower areas look more like manicured parklands”.
With each deer consuming approximately 10 pounds of vegetation each day, the forest cannot regenerate its vegetation fast enough to support 60+ deer per square mile.