Michigan’s Natural Communities: Rich Conifer Swamp
Michigan’s Natural Features Inventory, 2007
Long-term conservation of rich conifer swamps will require reducing deer densities across the landscape and allowing natural disturbances such as windthrow to create the complex structure that creates habitat for late-successional species.
Overabundant White-tailed Deer and the Alteration of Forested Communities
Department of Ecology and Evolution, Rutgers University-School of Environmental & Biological Sciences, 2006?
Deer can have profound effects on preferred woody and herbaceous browse species. Deer browse of woody vegetation alters the subcanopy and the shrub layer which are made up of small understory trees, young recruits for future canopy openings, and shrubs. The overbrowsing of the herbaceous level affects one level and can virtually eradicate an entire plant during one browsing episode.
Dr. Victor Reinstein Woods Nature Preserve Unit Management Plan
Town of Cheektowaga, New York, 2006
One of the major threats to the continued existence of the mature forest at Reinstein Woods is the large deer population. The town of Cheektowaga has begun a town-wide bait and shoot program to reduce the size of the population. The program is expected to take several years to achieve a significant reduction in the size of the population. Therefore, DEC plans to go ahead with establishing deer exclosures in strategic locations to encourage regeneration of desirable tree species in the forest… Two deer exclosures within the Woods give visible evidence that the deer population is impacting the forest within the Woods.
A demographic study of deer browsing impacts on Trillium grandiflorum
Plant Ecology, May 2003
Thomas P. Rooney and Kevin Gross
A moderate drought during the study could account for the negative population growth rate, but deer browsing accelerates the rate of decline. Population growth is most sensitive to the proportion of plants remaining in the nonflowering stage, and deer browsing reduces this proportion. Browsing damage was relatively low in this study (5.4% of stems in 1998, 11.5% in 1999) compared to another study of browsing impacts on T. grandiflorum, indicating deer could have far more severe demographic consequences in populations subject to higher levels of browsing.
Effects of population reduction on home ranges of female white-tailed deer at high densities
Howard J Kilpatrick, Shelley M Spohr, Kelly K Lima
Canadian Journal of Zoology, 2001 [abstract only]
Population reduction programs at our study area did not cause the resident deer population to expand home range size or shift into adjacent habitat. We believe that localized deer reduction programs can be effective tools to manage problem deer herds. Deer removal efforts initiated to reduce deer damage to vegetation, particularly in urban areas, may have an added effect of reducing foraging range of the remaining resident deer.
Impacts of White-tailed Deer On Endangered and Threatened Vascular Plants
Natural Areas Journal, 1992.
To assess the impact of white-tailed deer on flora, a review of pertinent literature and a telephone survey of professional botanists, endangered species scientists, natural area managers, and US National Park Service resource managers was undertaken. Ninety-eight species of threatened or endangered plants were reported disturbed by deer. Monocots and dicots comprised 39.8% and 56.1%, respectively, of the species disturbed. Of the disturbed species, 38.7% belonged to families Liliaceae and Orchidaceae.
The terrestrial vegetation and flora of North and South Manitou Islands, Sleeping Bear Dunes National Lakeshore
University of Michigan, 1983
The vegetation and flora of North and South Manitou Islands in northern Lake Michigan were surveyed during the summer of 1982 and the spring of 1983, the first comprehensive study of both islands. The vegetation associations were mapped and described, and a catalogue of 490 vascular plant species was compiled. A noticeable difference in forest structure and floristic composition between the islands was observed, largely due to an introduced deer herd on North Manitou. Twenty permanent plots were established on the islands to observe any future changes at selected sites. The island distributions of eight native species listed as threatened or of special concern by the State of Michigan were mapped and fragile habitats were identified.