Long-term effects of deer browsing: Composition, structure and productivity in a northeastern Minnesota old-growth forest
Mark A. White
The Nature Conservancy, Minnesota and the Dakotas, Forest Ecology and Management 269 (2012)
Continued high browsing pressure is one of many factors contributing to the restructuring of northern Great Lakes forests away from historical variability conditions towards a novel and more homogeneous forested landscape. These simplified forests may be less resilient to the suite of emerging stressors such as climate change and less able to provide ecosystem services such as carbon storage, biological diversity and forest products. Sustained restoration efforts, along with reductions in deer density will be needed to restore species and structural diversity.