Overabundant White-tailed Deer and the Alteration of Forested Communities

Overabundant White-tailed Deer and the Alteration of Forested Communities
Department of Ecology and Evolution, Rutgers University-School of Environmental & Biological Sciences, 2006?

Deer can have profound effects on preferred woody and herbaceous browse species. Deer browse of woody vegetation alters the subcanopy and the shrub layer which are made up of small understory trees, young recruits for future canopy openings, and shrubs. The overbrowsing of the herbaceous level affects one level and can virtually eradicate an entire plant during one browsing episode.